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(Answered) Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Homework 13

Bio 201

Question 1

Match each description with whether it refers to endochondral ossification, intramembranous ossification, or both.

This starts off with just some mesenchymal tissue.

flat bones develop this way

Embryonic development of bones occurs this way.

hyaline cartilage is used as a model for bone development  endochondral ossification
Long bones develop this way.

All Answer Choices
A. both types of ossification
B. intramembranous ossification
C. endochondral ossification

Question 2

In the primary ossification center during long bone development, there is a sequence of steps to the production of bone.  Put these steps in order.

osteogenic cells invade

chondrocytes enlarge and calcify their matrix

chondrocytes die

chondrocytes divide

Question 3

Place the following steps of endochondral ossification in the correct order.

1. Chondrocytes increase in size close to the center of the shaft.   the surrounding matrix begins to calcify. 

Cells of the perichondrium differentiate into osteoblasts.  A bone collar is created.

Chondrocytes get cut off from nutrients and die,  This creates cavities in the cartilage.

Bone development starts from the primary ossification center in the shaft then moves toward the ends of the cartilaginous model

Osteoclasts wear away the central portion of the model and creates a medullary cavity,  Osteoblasts move into the cartilage of the metaphysis where they produce columns of bone.
Osteoblasts move into the spaces left behind by the chondrocytes and replace cartilage with spongy bone.

Epiphyses become filled with spongy bone.  The epiphysis and diaphysis become separated by an epiphyseal plate.  The processes of cartilage replacement and cartilage enlargement drives the epiphysis and diaphysis from each other resulting in increased lenght.

Secondary ossification centers are created.

The epiphyseal line remains after epiphyseal growth ends.  Only a thin cap of the original cartilage model remains as articular cartilage.

The epiphyseal cartilage gets replaced by bone sealing the epiphysis to the diaphysis.

Question 4

Put the following steps of intramembranous ossification in the correct order.

Blood vessels get trapped within bone matrix

Osteoblasts become encased in crystalized matrix.  They then differentiate into osteocytes.

Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts.  The osteoblasts then clump together and secrete matrix.  This takes place in the ossification center.
Over time osteoblasts create a compact bone plate perforated with blood vessels along with a spongy bone center.

Question 5

This set of questions is about postembryonic bone growth.

Bone growth in length depends upon this.

Bone growth in length is very similar to this method of embryonic bone growth.  endochondral ossification
Bone growth in width depends upon this tissue.

Another term for the type of growth when bones grow in width.

All Answer Choices
A. intramembranous ossification
B. endochondral ossification
C. periosteum
D. appositional
E. epiphyseal plate

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