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(Answered) Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Homework 1 (1-4)

Bio 201

Question 1

For each statement below, match whether the word “anatomy” or “physiology” more appropriately describes it

There are five vertebrae that make up the lumbar region of the vertebral column.  anatomy

The meninges cover the brain and spinal cord.    anatomy

Oxygen is taken into every cell of the body to produce ATP.

Muscles contract when the protein “myosin” undergoes conformational changes.

Blood sugar levels rise when glucagon is released by the pancreas.

All Answer Choices

  1. physiology
  2. anatomy

Question 2

During this course you will be learning about all levels of the human body. To understand how our bodies work, you have to not only know about large things, like organ systems and organs, but also the tiniest things, like small molecules and atoms.  As you learn about each system, you will find yourself jumping around in the levels of living things. For example, from learning about cells of that system to the organs of that system, back to tissues of that system, and then large molecules of that system.  As you jump around the levels, it is impossible to really understand each system if you can’t picture in your mind how large each item is. For example, as you learn about actin in the muscular system, you will also learn about myosin– because those interact with each other.  Their interaction can happen because they are at the same level. Actin and myosin are both proteins, which puts them in the [1] level of organization. Calcium ions are also important in the muscular system, because the presence of calcium ions triggers the actin and myosin interaction that leads to a contraction. Calcium ions are at the smallest level of organization, which is this level: [2].

You will be learning about what happens when cells come together to create a function that they cannot create alone. An example of this can be imagined when thinking about the lining of a blood vessel. One cell alone cannot create the lining of a blood vessel.  But many cells together, linking with one another through adhesion points, can create an entire inner tube that is the lining of a blood vessel. Such a group of cells would be at the [3] level of organization. The blood vessel itself, which is more than just an interior lining but also has muscle in it to help it vasoconstrict or vasodilate, is at the [4] level of organization.

Typically, students find it difficult to understand the smallest levels of organization, mainly because these are things that we can’t see but can only imagine. There are plenty of models of these items, but you can’t really view them.  Pretty much, the smallest level of organization that can be seen under the light microscope is the [5] level of organization. But in humans, that is really only ever the nucleus. Other examples of this level, like the endoplasmic reticulum or the lysosome, are still too small for viewing. You will learn more about this in lab. As for the smaller levels, the chemical levels, you will need to keep working on understanding what fits into which level as you learn more this term.  It is true that big molecules are made up by combining smaller molecules, and small molecules are built from atoms.  However, our bodies don’t tend to put individual atoms together, but to rearrange existing chemicals. One chemical that is essential in this process in our bodies is water, and water is at the [6] level of organization.

In the nervous system you will learn about astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, microglia, and other items at the [7] level of organization. Each system has many items at this level of organization.  For example, in bone you will learn about osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Don’t worry that there are so many types.  You will come to understand why it is necessary to have more than one type in each system. Remember, you have to build the entire human body, which is at the [8] level of organization.  It takes a lot of components to do that and make it work properly!

In future chapters you will find some assignment questions that force you to think back to these levels of organization and apply them to specific systems. Also, there will be questions relating to this on the final. So be sure to think about each new item you learn about and figure out where to place it on this scale of items.

All Answer Choices

  • atom
  • small molecule
  • large molecule
  • organelle
  • cell
  • tissue
  • organ
  • organ system
  • individual

Question 3

Match each statement with the type of anatomy being described.
A kid breaks their arm and their arm bone (the humerus) is viewed in an X-ray. The way the humerus looks is this type of anatomy
A older male patient is having his prostate removed. During the surgery they have to be cautious that removal of the prostate gland (which contributes a secretion to semen) doesn’t cause them to accidentally cut the tiny nerves nearby that are needed for voluntary control of urination.  It’s a good thing that they know their ___.
The nerves that supply the arm muscles to enable arm movements emanate off the spinal cord at a much higher level than the nerves that supply the leg muscles. If a person has a spinal cord injury, the brain should be unaffected. Also, by knowing the level of the spinal cord injury you will be able to explain which nerves will no longer function. Understanding this would be this type of anatomy.
Part of standard blood tests involves doing a blood cell count. This requires viewing the cells and being able to tell the different cell types apart by how they look. Which type of anatomy is that?
Later this term you will be learning about the brain by viewing a sheep brain dissection. You can learn a lot about the human brain from a sheep brain. Comparing human and sheep brains would be this type of anatomy.

All Answer Choices

A.  systemic anatomy
B.  gross anatomy
C.  regional anatomy
D.  microscopic anatomy

Question 4

Maintenance of homeostasis is an example of
All Answer Choices
Positive feedback
Acquiring energy

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