Choose All That Apply: Which of the following statements concerning cloud formation are true within Earth’s atmosphere?
- The air parcel must be saturated in order for cloud droplets to form
- Cloud droplets form without aerosols by condensing onto one another
- Cloud droplets form when water vapor condenses onto cloud condensation nuclei
- Hydrophobic nuclei are more effective cloud condensation nuclei than hygroscopic nuclei
The picture provided above shows an example of what type of cloud?
The picture provided below shows an example of what type of cloud? Assume these clouds are located at an altitude of 4,000 meters above ground level.
Which of the first three statements concerning an adiabatic process is false?
- No heat is exchanged between an air parcel and its surrounding environment
- An air parcel warms as it sinks to lower altitudes and compresses
- An air parcel cools as rises to higher altitudes and expands
- All three statements are true statements.
The figure provided below shows air ascending and then descending a mountain with an elevation of 3 km. If the air initially has a temperature of 10oC and a dew point temperature of 5oC at 0 km, what is the air parcel’s lifting condensation level (LCL)?
- 0 km
- 5 km
- 5 km
Using the figure below, and your answer to (5), what is the temperature of an air parcel at the top of the mountain (i.e., at 3 km) when it is lifted from the surface (0 km)?
- -20 degrees C
- -12 degrees C
- -10 degrees C
- -8 degrees C
Using the figure below, and your answer to (6), what is the temperature of the air parcel after it sinks from the top of the mountain (i.e., 3 km) to the surface (i.e., 0 km) on the leeward side of the mountain? Assume that all moisture has precipitated out of the parcel at the top of the mountain.
- 8 degrees C
- 10 degrees C
- 15 degrees C
- 20 degrees C
Choose All That Apply: Which of the following processes can lead to ascent and subsequent cloud formation within the atmosphere?
- Topographic lift
- Surface convergence of air
What is the definition of the environmental lapse rate?
- The rate at which the temperature increases with elevation in the environment
- The rate at which the temperature decreases with elevation in the environment
- The rate at which an air parcel’s temperature decreases with elevation
- The rate at which an air parcel’s temperature increases with elevation
Boulder experienced a persistent strong temperature inversion last week, in which the temperature increased from –18oC in downtown Boulder (elevation: 1600 m) to 0oC at the top of Bear Peak (elevation: 2600 m). Such an environment can be described as ___________.
- Absolutely stable
- Absolutely unstable
- Conditionally unstable
- Conditionally stable
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