Consider an air parcel within an environment in which the environmental lapse rate is 7oC/km. Which phrase below best describes this environment?
- Absolutely unstable
- Conditionally unstable
- Absolutely stable
- Neutrally stable
Consider an air parcel within an environment in which the surface temperature is 25 degrees C and the dew point temperature is 15 degrees C. If the environmental lapse rate is 8 degrees C/km, at what altitude will a rising air parcel that leaves the surface to reach its level of free convection (LFC)?
- 0 km
- 1 km
- 2 km
- The parcel will never reach its LFC
Consider an air parcel that originates at 3 km with a temperature of 7oC and a dew point temperature of 0oC, and sinks to an altitude of 2 km above the surface. If the environmental lapse rate is 7oC/km, what will happen to the air parcel once it sinks to an altitude of 2 km? You can assume that the environmental temperature equals the air parcel temperature at an altitude of 3 km.
- The parcel will rise back to its original position at 3 km
- The parcel will continue to sink towards the surface
- The parcel will remain stationary at an altitude of 2 km
- Water vapor will begin to condense inside the air parcel
Choose All That Apply: Which of the following factors act to increase the instability within an environment?
- After a cloudy morning, clearing skies lead to strong solar heating at the surface during the afternoon.
- The transpiration of water by corn, and its subsequent evaporation, leads to increased surface dew point temperatures.
- A strong temperature inversion develops after sunset.
- The jet stream transports warmer temperatures into the region at upper levels in the troposphere.
Which process leads to the growth of precipitation within clouds characterized by temperatures uniformly above 0 degrees C.?
- Bergeron Process
- Collision–Coalescence Process
- Adiabatic Process
- Diabatic Process
A precipitation particle falls from an altitude of 4 km to the surface (0 km). If the environmental temperature at an altitude of 4 km is –10 degrees C and the environmental lapse rate is 5 degrees C/km, what type precipitation is most likely observed at the surface?
- Freezing rain
What force counteracts the vertical pressure gradient force, preventing the atmosphere from accelerating out to space?
- Coriolis force
- Centrifugal force
Use the map of mean-sea level pressure (black contours) below. At which location is the pressure gradient the largest?
Consider the distribution of isobars shown below. Which arrow best describes the pressure gradient force at the yellow dot?
- Arrow to the right
- Arrow to the left
- Arrow up
- Arrow down
San Antonio, TX, and Oklahoma City, OK, both observe the same surface pressure. If the average temperature in the troposphere above Oklahoma City is warmer than that observed over San Antonio, which location will feature a lower pressure at an altitude of 5 km above the surface?
- San Antonio, TX
- Oklahoma City, OK
- Both cities will feature identical pressures at an altitude of 5 km
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