Question 1.1 (1 mark)
Providing nursing care can be emotionally draining. Identify ways nurses can deal with workplace stress in a hospital setting, and analyse these in terms of their effectiveness.
Question 1.2 (1 mark)
Sufficiently long drying time is needed for an optimal bactericidal effect when using hand alcohol. The promising short application time is also useful for a range of other uses. The education program significantly improved the observed median drying time from 4 to 10 s, comparable in magnitude to findings from earlier studies in adult ICU settings (Boyce and Pittet, 2002, Karabay et al., 2005 and Sickbert-Bennett et al., 2005). Still, the median drying time was shorter than the manufacturer’s recommended optimal drying time. Possible reasons are a high workload, forgetfulness, and fear of skin irritation (Boyce and Pittet, 2002 and Grol and Grimshaw, 2003). The consumption of hand alcohol in our study rose significantly after the education program
Question 1.3 (1 mark)
Given that the purpose of hand washing is to avoid the transmission of infection between patients, and each hand washing event is less than 100% effective, with some microorganisms remaining on hands despite washing (Harbarth, 2013), it follows that the risk of transmission is influenced by both the efficacy of the hand washing process and the frequency of patient-to-patient interactions made by healthcare workers.
Despite this realisation and considerable effort on the part of healthcare providers and regulators, hand hygiene compliance remains relatively low, typically in the region of 40% (Larson & Kretzer, 2014), and this has led to the widespread opinion that hospital-acquired infection (HAI) rates can be greatly reduced by increased hand hygiene compliance alone (Teare & Cookson, 2011).
In particular, the relationship between staff deployment and hand hygiene has largely been ignored.
While many factors influence the risk of acquiring an infection whilst in hospital, patient-to-patient contact, usually via the unwashed hands of healthcare staff, is generally accepted as being the principal route of transmission for most exogenously acquired infections. The graduate RN’s role in aged care was described in this study as repetitive, monotonous, mundane and task orientated.
Question 1.4 10 marks
Given the general knowledge of the health risks of smoking, it’s no wonder that heaps of smokers have tried at some time in their lives to quit. However, in most cases, their attempts are unsuccessful. People begin smoking, often when they’re adolescents, for lots of reasons, including the example set by parents and pressure from peers. If others in one’s group of friends are starting to smoke, it can be hard to resist going along with the crowd. Once people start smoking, they’re likely to get hooked. The addiction to smoking is partly physiological; smokers become used to the effects of nicotine and experience painful withdrawal symptoms when they give it up. In addition, people become psychologically dependent on smoking as a way of reducing anxiety and coping with particular situations.
Question 2.1 1 mark
While generally viewed as a risk factor for adversity, for some teenagers, pregnancy may initiate a process of positive behaviour change. This has been supported predominantly through trends in substance use before and upon confirmation of pregnancy in teenagers
Behaviour change has been observed in some pregnant teenagers, as indicated by decreasing levels of substance abuse (Smith, Skinner & Fenwick, 2012)
Although often seen as unfavourable, for some teenagers, being pregnant can instigate a positive behaviour modification. This is seen mainly in the changing substance use of teenagers before and after news of their pregnancy
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