Guidelines for your Paper
• Paper MUST be written according to APA Manual guidelines.
Research Paper MUST include:
• APA Cover Page
• Abstract (on separate page)
• Introduction – approximately 2-5 pages
The introduction should introduce the major topic that you are investigating. It should start out with a general review of the literature and lead the reader to the specific hypothesis of your study.
• Method – approximately 1-3 pages (depending on design complexity)
Your method will include 2 or 3 subsections: 1) participants, 2) measures and 3) procedure (sometimes #2 and #3 are combined when the design is simple – e.g., survey).
• Participants– This subsection should include information regarding how many participants you expect to collect, general demographic information, you plan on collecting, how you plan on obtaining your sample, and things of that nature.
• Measures – This subsection should include measures you plan on including. Often this will be the DV in an experimental design. For a correlational design, sometimes both variables would appear here. The measures section should also include such things as the name of the instrument, an explanation of it and how it is scored, number of items for each measure, 2-3 example items (if it is a multi-item measure) or the actual measure (if it a single item or in an appendix if it is several items). If reliability and/or validity measures are available to support the measure, these should be included here as well.
• Procedure – This subsection should include your actual procedure. How do you plan to carry out the study? There should be enough detail such that someone could replicate the study if they wished to.
• Results – 1 to 2 sentences – In the results section, you will tell which test statistic(s) you plan on using to test your hypothesis or hypotheses.
• MUST HAVE AT LEAST 10 JOURNAL ARTICLES AS SOURCES.
The entire paper must be APA style!!!! This will be considered in the grading process.
APA Style Tips
Some tips on APA:
• Use standard 8 ½ X 11 in. paper
• Typeface – 12 pt. – Times Roman
• 2-spaced and no more that 27 lines of text (i.e., not including header)
• 1 inch margins
• Separate pages for title page, abstract, references, appendixes, visuals, and footnotes (you might not have any of the last three)
• The rest of the text is continuous. Therefore, do not start the methods, results, or discussion on a new page.
• Cite all information that is not your own! – I’ve attached some examples of citations within the text
Examples of references:
• Journal Article
Essex, M. J., & Nam, S. (1987). Marital status and loneliness among older women. Journal of
Marriage and the Family, 49, 93-106.
Fields, R. (1992). Drugs and alcohol in perspective. Dubuque, IA: Brown.
• Chapter in edited book
Swann, W. B., Jr. (1983). Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Social psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2, pp. 33-66). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
• Internet – Website
(1.) Document Created by Private Organization, no date
Greater New Milford (CT) Area healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do!
(2.) Chapter of section of an Internet document
Benton Foundation. (1998, July 7). Barriers to closing the gap. In Losing ground bit by bit:
Low-income communities in the information age (chap. 2).
(3.) Stand Alone Document, no author identified, no date
GVU’s 8th user survey. (n.d.).
Certainly there are other forms of information. Refer to the APA Manual for other types of references and their form.
Examples of citations within the text:
• Knowles (1984) argues that teaching aimed at children and youth differs from teaching aimed at adults.
• We are able to describe adults’ personality traits by using five dimensions (Costa & McCrae, 1988).
• Arranging desks in a circle leads to more student participation in class (Rosenfield, Lambert, & Black, 1985). …….
• If a group of 3 or more is cited already in the text, the subsequent citation for the authors would be either — Rosenfield and her colleagues (1985) suggest that open styles of classroom organization are useful for academic involvement OR Open styles of classroom organization are useful for academic involvement (Rosenfield et al., 1985).
• For many students, however, going to college right after high school serves as a catalyst for intellectual and personal growth (Kitchener & King, 1989; Perry, 1970).
• “Our analyses portray [sex] discrimination as pervasive, almost omnipresent, sustained by diverse orginazational structures and processes” (Baron & Bielby, 1985, p. 245).
Things to note about citations within the text:
• If more than one author is cited within the actual text (i.e., not in parentheses) the word “and” is spelled out.
• If more than one author is cited within parentheses, “and” is not spelled out; instead the “&” sign is used. Also the author and publication year is separated by a comma.
• The period for the sentence comes after the citation (i.e., if the citation is at the end of the sentence).
• When citing several sources for a single finding, order the authors according to alphabetical order, not date published. Also a semi-colon separates the authors.
• When quoting an author, always include the page number in the citation.
This citation reference is not exhaustive. Refer to the APA Manual when in question.
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