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territorial state’s monopoly

Which challenges are more damaging to the territorial state’s monopoly on coercive and law-making power: those ‘from above’ or those ‘from below’?
This question contains three components – the state’s monopoly on coercive and law-making power, challenges to this power from above, and challenges to this power from below. In other words, you already have your areas from across both terms clearly defined for you. Regarding the first element, please do not take the state’s monopoly on coercive and law-making power for granted.

– globalisation and regionalisation as a challenge from above

– separatism/nationalism/the new regionalism as a challenge from below


– REFERENCES FOR: Challenging the state from below

8.1 Lecture focus: Nationalism, separatism and the ‘new regionalism’
Essential reading
Agnew, J. (2001) ‘Regions in revolt’, Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 103-110
Supplementary reading
Harvie, C. (1994) The rise of regional Europe, London, Routledge
Jeffery, C. (1996) Sub-National Mobilization and European Integration: Does it Make any Difference?, Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 1-12
Johnson, N.C. (2002) ‘The Renaissance of Nationalism’, in Johnston, R.J., Taylor, P.J., and Watts, M.J. (eds.) Geographies of Global Change: Remapping the World, Malden, MA, Blackwell, pp. 130-142
Keating, M. (1997a) ‘The Political Economy of Regionalism’, in Keating, M. and Loughlin, J. (eds.) The political economy of regionalism, London, Routledge, pp. 17-40
Keating, M. (1997b) ‘The invention of regions: political restructuring and territorial government in Western Europe’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Vol. 15, pp. 383-398
Keating, M. (1998) The New Regionalism in Western Europe, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar
Loughlin, J. (2007) ‘Reconfiguring the State: Trends in Territorial Governance in European States’, Regional and Federal Studies, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 385-403
Oberschall, A. (2000) ‘The manipulation of ethnicity: from ethnic cooperation to violence and war in Yugoslavia’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 982-1001
Paasi, A. (2001) ‘Europe as a Social Process and Discourse: Considerations of Place, Boundaries and Identity’, European Urban and Regional Studies, Vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 7-28
Paasi, A. (2009) ‘The resurgence of the “Region” and “Regional Identity”: theoretical perspectives and empirical observations on regional dynamics in Europe’, Review of International Studies, Vol. 35, S1, pp. 121–146
Storey, D. (2001) Territory: The Claiming of Space, Harlow, Prentice Hall, Ch. 5-7
Williams, C.H. (1997) ‘Territory, Identity and Language’, in Keating, M. and Loughlin, J. (eds.) The political economy of regionalism, London, Routledge, pp. 112-138
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