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History

Paraphrase the folowing

  1. Medieval Europe/Intro

Around the year 1000 things began to change drastically. Christianity had already been established for hundred of years which in turn had functioned as the seeds for the growth of towns. By the end of the Middle Ages, European scholars were beginning to pursue philosophy again. European philosophers soon began to study a wide variety of topics that today would be considered psychological.

2.Christian Theologians

Monaticism was a great feature in the early Middle Ages. Monatsticism is the lifestyle of Christian men and women who chose to live in single-gender religious communities and devote their time to work and prayer. Another idea of Scholasticism arised as well. Scholasticism is the dominant mode of thought in Christian Europe during the Middle Ages that attempted to reconcile faith and reason using scripture.

3.Anselm of Cantebury

Anselm had great inspiration and motivation from his first mentor Lanfranc. Anselm for quite some time was a scholar and teacher, once his mentor left he became an administrator. Anselm and his later successors had no doubts about the existence of God and revealed the truth of the Holy Scriptures. He argued against what Kant had to say about the existence of God.

  1. Peter Abelard

Peter disagreed with his teachers so much that he lefts his teacher William of Champeaux in order to set up his own successful school. Later he and Abelard publically debated the concept of universals and Abelard become regarded as a prominent scholar. He created a new way of thinking called nominalism which is the belief that universals are cognitive categories of mind not rigid relationships between universals and particular events.

  1. Peter Lombard

Peter was a student of Peter Abelard and was profoundly influenced by him. Lombard was also very influential putting out a text called Four Books of Sentences, which contained biblical passages and commentaries covering many religious based ideas. His texts clashed with the words of Christendom, Aristotle not Augustine. His particular contribution was successfully combining Aristotle’s philosophy and Christian doctrine.

  1. Border with Social Science

The primacy of revealed knowledge or religion was central to Islamic and Christian thinking during the Middle Ages. In Christian Europe, the Bible was the main source of revealed knowledge. Pope could and did excommunicate rulers while rulers could and did depose popes through military force.

  1. Albert the Great

Albert taught at the Cologne for 12 years and then taught at several Dominican schools in Germany. Albert was motivated by Aristotle and decided to translate his corpus into Latin. Albert came up with the concept of trivium which was the basic curriculum of the medieval university consisting of three courses.

  1. Border with Social Science

During the Middle Ages biology also developed as a borderland for a yet-to-emerge psychology. Two of those categories were medicine and optics. Medicine would continue to develop slowly and become more scientific. The study of optics first led to progress in physics, not psychology.

  1. Thomas Aquinas

Thomas was a Dominican friar, when his family found of they decided to lock him up. His writings covered a wide variety of topics, ranging from philosophy, through Biblical commentaries, to metaphysics. Despite his logical bent, his metaphysical writings that had the longest lasting effects. Aquinas was heavily inspired and motivated by Christian theology and ideas.

  1. William of Ockham

He was never branded a heretic, but he was caught up speaking against the Pope and Franciscan Order. Ockham interpretation of the world can be described in a context called secularism which is the search for explanation within the confines of the world and its reality combined with rejection or diminishment of revealed concepts. This approach did not take place quickly or easily.

  1. The Rise of Humanism

Humanism is the study and application of worldly knowledge for and about secular concerns instead of sacred ones, especially as applied to art and literature. Philology is the study of texts with the goal of determining authorship, priority, authenticity, and relationship to other texts. Humanists also reanimated interest in moral philosophy.

  1. Petrach

Petrach was a gifted student who studied Latin, but his true passion was poetry. He began to collect a personal library and his first book was a copy of Augustine’s City of God. The novel was one of Petrachs biggest motivations. Petrach was very opposed of the Roman poet, Cicero.

  1. Humanism and Science

Philosophy changed greatly during the course of time covered by this chapter. Today many still see a wide gulf between the humanities and science. Moral philosophy was nonetheless genuine philosophy, though its premises may well have been Protagorean and rhetorical.

  1. The Black Plague

The Black Plague was the first world epidemic that struck Europe in 1348. The plague had originated in China several years earlier and had spread westward via the Silk Road. Because of the state of medical knowledge at the time physicians had no theories to explain how infection proceeded.

  1. Border with Computational Science

A foundation example telling much about the mindset of the Middles Ages centers on the introduction and spread of the Hindu-Arabic numerals in Europe. Nevertheless, it took a hundred years before the Hindu-Arabic numbers came into nearly universal use. The use of Hindu-Arabic numerals greatly accelerated the progress of mathematics.

  1. Astronomy

Islamic astronomy was more advanced and their astronomers created instruments such as the astrolabe to accurately determine the direction toward Mecca. Thus, the use of Hindu-Arabic numerals, the rise of printing, and the collection of astronomical data were all necessary precursors. The empirical data collected by astronomers such as Corpenicus, Gallileo, and Kepler.

  1. Empiricism

Empiricism is the view that holds that all knowledge comes from experience, especially from sensory experience. Empiricism slowly returned during the Middle Ages to both the Christian and Islamic worlds as writings of Aristotle became more known due to the heroic efforts of translators. To be sure, theology still dominated intellectual life at the end of the Middle Ages.

  1. Ideas Emerging from the era of Faith to Humanism

As Christian religious orders for men and women multiplied universities came into being to fill the demand for scholars. Biology reemerged as an academic discipline but only in a limited way. The Black Plague was a major external shock that, ultimately, opened more doors than closed it.

  1. 1350/1700 Introduction

The Roman Catholic Church experienced a prolonged crisis. Martin Luther’s defiance of the Pope led to the Protestant Reformation, a long series of religious wars, and late, a vigorous Catholic Counter Reformation. Other large-scale historoical events also played a major role during this period. Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits.

  1. The Renaisance/ Then and Now

Humanism helped ignite the historical period known as the Renaissance. The Renaisance began in Florence, Italy and quickly spread through all of Europe. Glutenberg’s invention of the printing press with moveable type in 1440 was revolutionary. Suddenly, the humanist’s emphasis on language took on a life of its own as printing presses spread through Germany. The invention of the printing pres provided new synergy.

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